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alms bowl [悖

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アヒンサー アヒンサー

ahimsā [アヒンサー] (, Pali;  ahinsā): The underlying principle of Indian religions and philosophies. Ahimsā means non-injury, non-killing, or nonviolence toward any living being; it is the negation of himsā, which means killing. Non-killing, or the preservation of life, is a fundamental ethic in Buddhism as well, ranking first among the five precepts. Based on the principle of ahimsā, Buddhists and Jainas opposed the Brahmans and their ritual killing of domestic animals. A ritual called the life-liberating practice, conducted in China and Japan, was an expression of this commitment to avoid killing. In this ceremony, living things such as fish and birds were released into the wild. Jainism is particularly strict in observing the non-killing of any living being and regards this practice as a means of attaining emancipation. In the early twentieth century, Mahatma Gandhi of India developed his idea of satyāgraha (devotion to truth) and its application to nonviolent resistance based on ahimsā.


アージービカ派 邪命外道 アージービカ派?邪命外道

ājīvika school [アージービカ派?邪命外道] (, Pali;  ājībika-ha or Jamyō-gedō): A religious school in ancient India during Shakyamuni's time. The ājīvika school is said to have been as prosperous and influential as Buddhism and Jainism. It continued to flourish until the Maurya dynasty that began in the late fourth century b.c.e., and then it gradually declined. ājīvika was a name used disparagingly by Buddhists to mean one who performs religious practice in order to earn a living. The Sanskrit word ājīva means livelihood. In the Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures, ājīvika is rendered as “the school of false livelihood.” Makkhali Gosāla, one of the six non-Buddhist teachers, was well known as the leader of the ājīvika school. The doctrine of this school is known only from descriptions found in Buddhist and Jain texts. The school held a completely deterministic and fatalistic view of the nature of existence, asserting that all events are predetermined by fate, and that the will and actions of human beings are totally ineffective in altering the course of their transmigration. Nevertheless, the followers of this school practiced asceticism as Jain followers did. The school existed in southern India until the fourteenth century.

インドボダイジュ インドボダイジュ

pipal tree [インドボダイジュ] ( pippala;  Indo-bodaiju): A bodhi tree. See pippala tree.


楗蕙伐椹`寺 ヴィクラマシラー寺

Vikramashilā Monastery [ヴィクラマシラー寺] (;  Bikuramashirā-ji): A Buddhist monastery built in the Ganges Valley, in what is today Bihar State, India, around 800 by Dharmapāla, the second ruler of the Pāla dynasty. This dynasty ruled eastern India from the mid-eighth to the late twelfth century. Along with Nālandā Monastery, Vikramashilā Monastery prospered as a center for the study of Buddhist doctrines, particularly the esoteric teachings referred to as Tantric Buddhism. On the grounds of the monastery were more than one hundred buildings. Its complete destruction in 1203 by the Muslims, however, is regarded as symbolic of the ultimate decline of Buddhism in India.


カナーダ カナーダ

Kanāda [カナーダ] (;  Kanāda): Another name for Ulūka, the founder of the Vaisheshika school of Brahmanism. See Ulūka.


ガンダーラ 健駄罗国 ガンダーラ?健駄罗国

Gandhara [ガンダーラ?健駄羅国] (, Pali Gandhāra;  Gandāra or Kendara-koku): A historic region that includes the present Peshawar Division in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Gandhara had long been a crossroads of Indian, Iranian, Greek, and Roman cultural influences and also a center of Buddhist culture. Around the sixth century b.c.e., it was one of the sixteen great states of the Indian subcontinent. In the late sixth century b.c.e., it was annexed by the Persian Achaemenian Empire and remained under its rule for about two centuries. Gandhara fell under Greek rule after being conquered by Alexander the Great in the late fourth century b.c.e., and then was ruled by the Maurya dynasty of India. During the reign of King Ashoka of the Maurya dynasty in the third century b.c.e., Madhyāntika, a Buddhist monk, was sent by the king to Gandhara to disseminate the teachings of Buddhism. Later Gandhara was ruled by Indo-Greek kings, then by the Shakas, Parthians, and the Kushans. Kushan rule began in the first century; King Kanishka of that dynasty, who is generally believed to have reigned in the second century, made Purushapura, the present-day Peshawar, the capital of his empire. With his support Buddhism flourished in the new capital and reached its height during his reign. Both Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism were studied and practiced. Among the various schools, the Sarvāstivāda school of Hinayana particularly prospered. In the fourth century (the fifth century according to another account), Asanga and Vasubandhu lived in Gandhara where they contributed greatly to the propagation of Mahayana Buddhism. During the period of Kushan rule, many monasteries and stupas were built, but were destroyed by the Hephthalites, also known as the White Huns, who invaded the area in the fifth century. Hsüan-tsang, a Chinese priest who visited Gandhara in the seventh century, wrote in The Record of the Western Regions that it was a dependency of the Kapisha kingdom, and that more than one thousand monasteries had been devastated and a number of stupas reduced to ruins. In the twentieth century, archaeological expeditions into the Gandhara region were undertaken by John Marshall (1876–1958) and Alfred Foucher (1865–1952).

Gandhara is also known as the birthplace of Gandhara art, a predominantly Buddhist style of art that flourished from the first through the fifth century. Artworks of this style have been found in what was ancient Gandhara and its surrounding regions extending to Taxila and Swat to the east and north, respectively, and to eastern Afghanistan to the west. Gandhara art, influenced by Greek and Roman artistic style, produced the earliest images of Shakyamuni Buddha. Before the rise of Gandhara art in the first century, relief sculptures depicting the events of the Buddha's life existed but did not portray the Buddha himself. A wheel, an empty throne, a bodhi tree, an umbrella, or a pair of footprints were used as symbols to represent the Buddha. Gandhara art, however, depicted the Buddha for the first time in human form. Gandhara art had an important effect on Buddhist art as a whole in India, Central Asia, and China.

キジル石窟 キジル石窟

Kizil caves [キジル石窟] ( Kijiru-sekkutsu): The Buddhist cave-temples located about seventy kilometers west of Kucha, a city in the Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China. The Kizil Buddhist caves, more than 230 of them, are the largest such cluster of caves in the Tarim Basin. The wall paintings preserved in these caves are second in number only to the Mo-kao Caves at Tun-huang. These paintings depict legends of Shakyamuni's previous births and events of his life, including his entrance into nirvana. Research conducted there in the early twentieth century made the Kizil caves a focus of attention. Although opinions differ as to the dates of their creation, it is generally thought that these caves were built over a period beginning in the fourth century and ending in the eighth century.

クシャーナ朝 贵霜朝 クシャーナ朝?贵霜朝

Kushan [クシャーナ朝?貴霜朝] ( Kushāna-chō or Kisō-chō): Also known as Kushāna. A dynasty that existed from the mid-first through the mid-third century in the area that included Afghanistan, the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, and parts of Central Asia. The territory of the Kushan kingdom contained an important section of the great trade route leading from China to India and westward to Parthia and Rome. Generally, the people of Kushan are regarded as having been of Iranian stock. In the second century b.c.e., the Yüeh-chih people, driven out of their territory by the Hsiung-nu (known to Europeans as the Huns), moved westward and established their kingdom in the region around the northern part of present-day Afghanistan. The Chinese knew it as the Great Yüeh-chih kingdom. The kingdom was then divided into five domains under five chieftains. One of the five chiefdoms was that of the Kushans. In the latter half of the first century c.e., the Kushans increased their power under the reign of Kujūla Kadphises, who conquered the other four chieftains and established his own dynasty. He extended his territory southward into Gandhara and the surrounding area, and the successive Kushan rulers expanded their dynastic territory still farther. During the reign of King Kanishka around the second century, the Kushan kingdom reached its height.

From the third century onward, Kushan power was limited by the rise of the Sasanids in Iran and local powers in northern India. Eventually the Kushan kingdom was attacked by the Sasanids, leading to its rapid decline and collapse in the mid-third century. Under Kushan rule, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent witnessed a prospering of the Hinayana Buddhist schools, especially the Sarvāstivāda, and the flourishing of Mahayana Buddhism as well. Images of the Buddha were created for the first time, and Gandhara Buddhist art developed. King Kanishka is known as a great patron of Buddhism, along with King Ashoka. Ashvaghosha, the renowned Buddhist scholar and poet from Kushan, actively spread Mahayana Buddhism.

シルクロード シルクロード

Silk Road [シルクロード] ( Shiruku-rōdo): Also known as the Silk Route. The ancient travel route through Central Asia, linking Lo-yang and Ch'ang-an in China with the regions of ancient Syria and the Roman territory in the west. The Silk Road was a caravan route along which silk and other goods from China were carried to the West for trading, and gold, silver, glass vessels, and other goods from the West to China. In addition to goods, the route also facilitated an exchange of culture and religion, and was a principal route along which Buddhism reached China from India and Central Asia. In China, the route began in Lo-yang and Ch'ang-an, and passed through the Kansu Corridor to Tun-huang. The road then passed through the Tarim Basin, a broad valley lying between the lofty mountain range Tien Shan in the north and the Kunlun Mountains in the south.
 The oases around the Tarim Basin were watered by the rivers flowing from these two mountain ranges, and became the centers of a number of oasis city-states throughout history. The Silk Road divided into northern and southern routes along the perimeter of the Tarim Basin. The northern route linked the oasis cities or states that lay on the northern rim of the basin along the foot of the southern slope of the Tien Shan range. The southern route passed through the oasis cities on the southern rim of the basin along the foot of the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The northern route extended to Kashgar on the western end of the Tarim Basin, and then crossed the Pamirs and continued through the Fergana Valley. It then passed through the western regions of Asia, by the Black Sea, and finally to the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea, where silk and other trade items were shipped to and from ports on the Mediterranean. The southern route extended to Yarkand at the western end of the Tarim Basin, passed through the southern Pamirs to Bactria, and continued on to northern Iran. This road also had a branch extending southward into northwestern India.
 The northern and southern routes through the Tarim Basin flourished in the latter part of the second century b.c.e., during which time the Chinese official Chang Ch'ien was sent westward by Emperor Wu, the ruler of the Former Han dynasty, to form an alliance with a people who lived to the west of the Pamirs and were known to the Chinese as the Yüeh-chih. Buddhism entered China from India and Central Asia along both the northern and southern routes of the Silk Road. Other religions also made their way to China along the same routes, including Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam.
 In recent times, several archaeological expeditions into Central Asia have shed light on the importance of these trade routes in fostering contact between Eastern and Western civilizations. Beside the route through the Tarim Basin, two other routes connecting East and West are now known. One ran through the vast steppes or grasslands of central Eurasia, westward through Mongolia, and then through the regions lying north of the Tien Shan range, the Aral Sea, and the Caspian Sea, and toward the Black Sea in southeastern Europe. This route dates to the last centuries b.c.e. The other route was a seaborne route across the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and on to the Persian Gulf or the Red Sea. This route can be traced back to the third century b.c.e. Thus, the passage between East and West known generally as the Silk Road consisted of several main routes and numerous branches.


タクシラ タクシラ

Taxila [タクシラ] ( Takushira): A city in ancient India that was a great center of Buddhism where Gandhara Buddhist art flourished. See Takshashilā.


タリム盆地 タリム盆地

Tarim Basin [タリム盆地] ( Tarimu-bonchi): A broad geological depression in Eastern Turkestan. Now part of the Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China, it is surrounded on the north and south by the Tien Shan and Kunlun mountain ranges, respectively. The greater part of the Tarim Basin consists of the Takla Makan Desert. From ancient times, the Chinese referred to the area of the Tarim Basin as the “Western Regions.” Buddhism was transmitted eastward to China through the Tarim Basin, while Chinese priests went westward through this vast basin, seeking Buddhist scriptures. At the eastern rim of the Tarim Basin, the road from China divided into two branches and ran westward along the northern and southern edges of the Takla Makan Desert. These constituted the northern and southern branches of the caravan route known as the Silk Road that connected East and West and served as a passageway of commerce and culture. Moving west on the northern road, one encountered such oasis cities as Turfan, Karashar, Kucha, and Kashgar; and going west on the southern road, one passed through the oasis cities of Lou-lan, Miran, and Khotan. These cities fostered unique cultures merging aspects of Eastern and Western civilizations. There are a large number of Buddhist remains along the northern and southern roads. In recent years, numerous manuscripts of Buddhist scriptures and other ancient texts in various languages have been excavated there.

タントラ佛教 タントラ佛教

Tantric Buddhism [タントラ佛教] ( Tantora-bukkyō): Also, Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, or Esoteric Buddhism. A stream of Buddhist thought and practice that became formalized in India and flourished from the seventh to the eleventh century. Tantric Esotericism became a part of the broader Mahayana movement and represents an infusion of popular magic, mysticism, and ritual into the Indian schools of Buddhism. The Sanskrit word tantra means loom or warp of cloth, essential part, or doctrine.

Tantra also refers to a class of Hindu or Buddhist scriptures on esoteric practices that developed rather late in the history of the literatures of those religions. They emphasize benefits that accrue from the recitation of mantras (magical formulas), the formation of mudras (hand gestures), the performance of rituals, the use of mandalas (ritual diagrams), and other practices. Tantric thought became a formalized stream within Mahayana Buddhism around the seventh century and spread to Central Asia, China, and Tibet. Tantric tradition is an important element of Tibetan Buddhism.

Bu-ston, a Tibetan scholar of the fourteenth century, classified Indian Buddhist tantras into four general categories: Kriyā-tantra, dealing with ritual acts; Charyā-tantra, which combines ritual acts with meditation; Yoga-tantra, dealing chiefly with meditation; and Anuttarayoga-tantra, or supreme yoga tantras. The fourth form, Anuttarayoga-tantra, which was not introduced to China and Japan, is the strongest in sexual symbolism, identifying prajnā, or wisdom, as a female principle; upāya, or expedient means, as a male principle; and enlightenment as a union of these two. Some of its practitioners interpreted this symbolism literally and sought enlightenment in the sexual union of man and woman.

The earliest esoteric Buddhist tantras, such as the Sanskrit texts of the Mahāvairochana Sutra and the Diamond Crown Sutra, were produced in India in the seventh century. In China, Esoteric Buddhism was introduced and established by the Indian monks Shan-wu-wei ( Shubhakarasimha, 637–735), Chin-kang-chih (Vajrabodhi, 671–741), Pu-k'ung (Amoghavajra, 705–774), and others. Its teachings were systematized to enable the attainment of Buddhahood in one's present body. The Sanskrit Buddhist tantras were translated into Chinese and spread as esoteric sutras and teachings featuring mudras, mantras, and mandalas. In Japan, Kōbō (774–835; also known as Kūkai) formulated his own systematization of these teachings, founding the True Word (Shingon) school based upon them. Esoteric Buddhism was also accepted and developed by the Tendai school in Japan.

チベット佛教 チベット佛教

Tibetan Buddhism [チベット佛教] ( Chibetto-bukkyō): A distinctive form of Buddhism that developed in Tibet around the seventh century and later in Mongolia and other regions. It is a tradition that derives from Indian Mahayana Buddhism, especially the doctrine of non-substantiality ( shūnyatā) of the Mādhyamika school, and incorporates the doctrine of the Yogāchāra (Consciousness-Only) school as well as the esoteric rituals of Vajrayāna (Tantric, or Esoteric, Buddhism). Tibetan Buddhism is also monastic, having adopted the vinaya, or monastic rules, of early Buddhism. It has traditionally involved a large number of monks and nuns. Tibetan Buddhism is sometimes (incorrectly) referred to as Lamaism, due to its system of “reincarnating” lamas. The title lama means a venerable teacher. Some lamas of certain Tibetan monasteries are believed to be successively reincarnated, each head lama being considered a reincarnation of the last in the lineage. In these traditions, sets of instructions are handed down that lead to the identification of a child believed to be the reincarnation of a previous lama. When signs point to a certain child (always a boy), he is tested, and upon passing the tests, is recognized as the reincarnated lama. He then receives monastic training and education and takes on full responsibilities as a lama at a specified age.

Buddhism evolved in Tibet in the early seventh century during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo (581–649). A series of religious kings contributed to its adoption and eventual institution as a state religion. Songtsen Gampo took as his wives a Nepalese princess and a Chinese princess, both of whom were devout Buddhists. They influenced the king to take faith in Buddhism and build the first Buddhist temples in Tibet. Songtsen Gampo also sent Thonmi Sambhota to study Buddhism in India. When he returned, he developed a Tibetan writing system based upon the Indian scripts he had studied (Tibet until that time had no set writing system). With this Tibetan script, translation of Sanskrit Buddhist texts into Tibetan began.

Later King Thisong Detsen (742–797) further established Buddhism in Tibet against strong opposition from practitioners of the native religion called Bon. He invited Shāntarakshita, a noted Indian monk of the Mādhyamika school, to come to Tibet to teach Buddhism. On Shāntarakshita's advice, the king also invited the Indian Tantric master Padmasambhava. Padmasambhava is credited with “converting” the Bon deities to Buddhism (incorporating them into the Buddhist teachings) and quelling Bon opposition. Shāntarakshita and Padmasambhava together established Tibet's first monastery at Samye in 779. The Nyingma, one of today's four major Tibetan Buddhist schools, claims to preserve the teachings of Padmasambhava. King Thisong Detsen also sponsored a religious debate between Kamalashīla, an Indian monk, and Mo-ho-yen, a Chinese priest of the Zen (Ch'an) school, held at the Samye monastery in 794. The king decided in favor of the Indian teacher and thus officially adopted the teachings of Indian Buddhism, or more specifically, the Mahayana teachings founded on Nāgārjuna's philosophy of the Madhyamika school and the bodhisattva ideal. He rejected the introspective doctrines of Zen that claimed to ensure sudden enlightenment through meditation.

King Thitsug Detsen (806–841), a grandson of King Thisong Detsen, built temples and monasteries and contributed greatly to the translation of Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures into Tibetan as well as to Buddhist art and culture. According to one account, in 841 Bon followers had him assassinated, and his brother, Langdarma, succeeded him. The new king opposed Buddhism. He destroyed temples and monasteries, oppressed Buddhist monks, and abolished Buddhism as an institution; it was not restored until two centuries later. According to another account, the death of King Langdarma led to a power struggle that resulted in the division of the nation and a collapse of the Buddhist Order. In either case, after a period of political and religious turmoil, the ruler of western Tibet invited Atīsha, an Indian Buddhist teacher of the Madhyamika school, to the region in 1042 to help restore Buddhism.

Atīsha propagated Buddhist teachings, reformed Tantric practices that had involved overt sexual activity, and brought about a revival of Buddhism. Atīsha's teachings were inherited by his disciple Domton, who founded the Kadam school of Tibetan Buddhism. (Later this school was absorbed by the Gelug school, also known as the Yellow Hat school, which was founded in the late fourteenth century by Tsongkapa, a Buddhist reformer.) In the same century, Marpa returned to Tibet from his journey to India to study Buddhism and, with his disciple Milarepa, founded the Kagyu school. By the fourteenth century, Buddhism was well established in Tibet, and most of the available Indian scriptures had been translated into Tibetan. A number of lost Sanskrit scriptures have been preserved until today through their Tibetan translations.

Tibetan Buddhism also spread outside of Tibet, most notably in Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. In the mid-thirteenth century, Sakya Pandita, an eminent scholar of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, journeyed to Mongolia with his nephew and student, Phagpa. Deeply impressed by them, Mongol officials converted to Buddhism. Later Phagpa was appointed imperial teacher and became an adviser to Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Mongol Empire. He was also appointed the temporal ruler of Tibet. In 1578 the Mongolian ruler Altan Khan hosted the renowned Sonam Gyatso, the leader of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, and conferred upon him the honorific title “Dalai Lama.” Dalai is a Mongolian word for ocean. The title was also applied to his two predecessors.

With the aid of the Mongols, the Gelug school and its lineage of Dalai Lamas became the most prominent and powerful in Tibet. The Dalai Lama came to be regarded as the country's spiritual leader and temporal ruler, and each was believed to be a successive incarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, Perceiver of the World's Sounds. Since the popular uprising against Chinese rule in Tibet in 1959 and the resulting exile of the fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (b. 1935), and his followers, interest in Tibetan Buddhism has grown in the West. The Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya, and Gelug are the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the Gelug being the most prominent.

トルファン トルファン

Turfan [トルファン] ( Torufan): A city in the eastern Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China. It lies on a fertile oasis at the foot of the southern slope of the Tien Shan range and on the northern side of the Turfan Depression, about 110 kilometers southeast of Urumchi, the capital of the Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region. The present-day inhabitants of Turfan are mostly Uighur Muslims. Many archaeological and religious relics can be found in the vicinity of Turfan, such as the ruins of ancient capital cities and Buddhist caves. Buddhism once flourished in Turfan, which was home to many monks who engaged in the translation of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese. In the early seventh century, the Chinese priest and pilgrim Hsüan-tsang, who chronicled his travels through Central Asia and India in The Record of the Western Regions, stayed for about a month at a Buddhist monastery in Karakhoja, capital of the Kao-ch'ang kingdom of the Turfan region. There he received support from the Ch'ü, the ruling clan of the kingdom. The Uighurs migrated to the Turfan region in the latter half of the ninth century and built their kingdom there. Though largely adherents of Manichaeanism, they came into contact with the Buddhists in the region and took faith in Buddhism. They translated Buddhist scriptures into the Uighur language and developed a unique Buddhist culture. Later the region became primarily Islamic, but many of the cultural and religious treasures of Buddhism were preserved. Toward the close of the nineteenth century, archaeological exploration began in Central Asia and, from the early twentieth century, was carried out in full scale. Buddhist images and paintings, as well as Buddhist scriptures written in Sanskrit, the Uighur language, and other Central Asian languages, were discovered near Turfan.


ミリンダ王问经 ミリンダ王问经

Milindapanha [ミリンダ王問经] (Pali;  Mirindaō-monkyō): The Questions of King Milinda. A record of the dialogues of the Buddhist monk Nāgasena and the learned Greco-Bactrian king Menander or Menandros (Pali Milinda), who ruled the region that is the present-day Afghanistan and northern India in the latter half of the second century b.c.e. The questions put by King Menander to the monk Nāgasena cover a wide range of subjects, such as the nature of self, wisdom and desire, transmigration, karma, the Buddha as a historical figure, the Buddhist Order, the qualifications of monks, the respective roles of monks and lay people, and nirvana. This work is valued as one of the first recorded encounters between Hellenistic and Buddhist thought and culture. It states that Menander dedicated a monastery to Nāgasena and abdicated the throne in favor of his son, entering the Buddhist Order and eventually attaining the state of arhat. Menander's renunciation of the secular world is questionable in light of historical evidence, but it appears that he gained a great understanding of Buddhism and his influence helped it to prosper. The Chinese text titled the Monk Nāgasena Sutra corresponds to the first three chapters of the Milindapanha. It was translated sometime during the Eastern Chin dynasty (317–420). The translator is unknown.

ミーラーン ミーラーン

Miran [ミーラーン] ( Mīrān): The capital of the ancient kingdom of Shan-shan in eastern Turkestan in Central Asia. Miran, now a historic site famous for its ruins of Buddhist monasteries, is southwest of Lop Nor (Lop Lake) in the Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region in northwestern China. In 77 b.c.e., the Han dynasty killed the ruler of a kingdom called Lou-lan. The Han renamed the kingdom Shan-shan and made Miran its capital. Miran was on the easternmost part of the trade route running along the southern rim of the Tarim Basin. This route linked China, the lands to the west, and India. It later became known as the southern route of the Silk Road. Miran is said to have fallen into ruin around the fourth century. Murals depicting legends of Shakyamuni Buddha's previous births and the events of the Buddha's life remain in the Buddhist monasteries. Ancient documents have also been discovered there, including those written in the ancient Indian Kharoshthī and Brāhmī scripts and in the Old Tibetan and Old Turkish languages.


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